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Rak grlica materice By: Alle Date: Septembar 02, 2010, 21:46:27
Šta je rak grlića materice?

Rak grlića materice je zloćudni tumor koji nastaje na grliću materice.Grlić je deo materice koji je okrenut prema vagini.On je lako dostupan i može se pregledati jednostavnim i bezbolnim metodama.
Svake godine u Evropi, u više od 60,000 žena otkrije se rak grlića materice, a oko 30,000 žena umre od ove bolesti.  Rak grlića materice najčešće se javlja kod mlađih žena, između 35. i 50. godine života. Srbija je na prvom mestu u Evropi po broju žena obolelih od raka grlića materice sa oko 1500 novih slučajeva godišnje. Veliki broj naših žena prvi put se javi ginekologu kada je bolest već uzela maha i kada je lečenje teško i neizvesno. Nažalost, oko 500 žena u svake godine u Srbiji izgubi život zbog raka grlića materice.
Većina ovih slučajeva mogla se sprečiti da je bolest otkrivena na vreme i da se na vreme pristupilo lečenju.

Kako nastaje rak grlića materice?

Bolest počinje kada se neke ćelije grlića materice promene i počnu da se umnožavaju na nekontrolisan način. Ovaj proces započinje razvojem abnormalnosti ćelija grlića materice koje se tokom vremena postepeno pogoršavaju, pre nego što se konačno razviju u rak. Te abnormalnosti se nazivaju premalignim promenama.
Većina premalignih promena na početku razvoja bolesti je blagog stepena i  spontano će nestati bez ikakvog lečenja. U nekim slučajevima, ne dolazi do spontanog izlečenja i ukoliko se ovakve premaligne promene na vreme ne pronađu i ne uklone, mogu da prerastu u rak grlića materice. Za to je potrebno je nekoliko godina.Tokom ovog dugog vremena premaligne promene grlića materice mogu se lako otkriti i veoma lako i uspešno izlečiti.  One, međutim, ne daju nikakve tegobe, pa se otkrivaju samo redovnim pregledima.

Koji su faktori rizika za nastanak raka grlića materice?

Faktor rizika je sve što može povećati mogućnost nastanka bolesti. Faktori rizika mogu biti faktori sredine i nasledni (genetski) faktori, ali i određene lične navike kao što je pušenje, koje je poznati faktor rizika za veliki broj kancera. Veoma je važno zapamtiti da to što imate faktor rizika za određenu bolest ne znači da ćete i dobiti bolest. To jednostavno znači da su, ukoliko su svi ostali uslovi jednaki, Vaše šanse da obolite veće nego kod osobe koja nema isti faktor rizika.

Faktori rizika za nastanak raka grlića materice su

-Izvesne genitalne infekcije (HPV)
-Hemijski faktori (pušenje)
-Imunosupresija (oslabljen imuni sistem, HIV, stanja posle transplantacije organa)
-Seksualne navike (rano stupanje u seksualne odnose, promiskuitet)
-Faktori vezani za muškog partnera (promiskuitet)
-Način života (loši socio-ekonomski uslovi)

Koje su rizične grupe žena?

Žene koje imaju nizak rizik za rak grlića materice:

-žene koje ranije nisu imale abnormalan Pap bris
-žene sa seksualnim navikama niskog rizika (kasno stupanje u polne odnose, mali broj partnera)

Žene sa faktorima visokog rizika:

-seksualna aktivnost započeta u ranoj mladosti (pre 16. godine)
-brojni seksualni partneri
-odnosi sa muškarcem koji ima HPV infekciju
-prethodne seksualno prenosive bolesti ili genitalne bradavice
-pušači ili raniji pušači
-odsustvo normalnog imunog odgovora (sve HIV pozitivne žene, žene koje iz različitih razloga primaju
-intrauterina izloženost dietilstilbestrolu (DES)
-žene kojima prethodno nije redovno uziman Papanikolau bris
-žene mladje od 30 godina

Prema današnjim saznanjima, najvažniji faktor rizika za nastanak raka grlića materice je infekcija Humanim papiloma virusom (HPV).

Međutim, ovo nije jedini faktor rizika. Da bi HPV infekcija dovela do nastanka raka grlića materice neophodni su i drugi faktori od kojih su najvažniji:
oslabljen imuni sistem
Veliki broj studija je ispitivao uticaj pušenja na nastanak abnormalnosti u ćelijama grlića materice i njihovo pogoršavanje do raka. Pokazano je da pušači imaju nešto više od dva puta veći rizik za nastanak raka grlića materice u poređenju sa ženama koje nikada nisu pušile. Na sreću, ovaj rizik se smanjuje posle ostavljanja pušenja.
Rak grlića materice neće se razviti ukoliko nema dugotrajne HPV infekcije i na sreću,  imuni sistem većine ljudi,  izbori se protiv HPV infekcije u roku od 24 meseca. Bilo šta što slabi imuni sistem, kao što je hemioterapija ili HIV infekcija, može odložiti ili sprečiti eliminaciju HPV i povećati rizik za nastanak raka grlića materice.
U većini slučajeva rak grlića materice otkriva se kod žena koje nisu redovno kontrolisane i nije im redovno rađen pregled brisa grlića materice nazvan Papanikolau test.
Odg: Rak grlica materice By: nikolalosic Date: Decembar 05, 2010, 20:02:09
 :at :at :at :at :at
Odg: Rak grlica materice By: !mila! Date: Decembar 10, 2010, 11:46:16
odvratno... :at cry3
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